City or Country

Lesson Plan: City or Country

Childhood Idyll
William-Adolphe Bouguereau, France


Students will examine the artistic characteristics of Childhood Idyll, describe the characteristics of a city and of the countryside, and classify pictures as being from a city/urban area or from a countryside/rural area.

Age Group

Early childhood (ages 3-5)


21st Century Learning Skills Addressed:

  • Critical Thinking and Reasoning
  • Information Literacy
  • Collaboration

2009 Colorado Academic Standards Primary Area Addressed:
Social Studies

  • Develop spatial understanding, perspectives and connections to the world

Additional 2009 Colorado Academic Standards Addressed:
Language Arts

  • Oral Expression and Listening
  • Reading for All Purposes

Visual Arts

  • Observe and Learn to Comprehend

Length of Lesson

One 40-minute lesson


Examining the characteristics and identifying pictures of cities and the countryside helps students develop their classification abilities and make connections to the world.


Students will be able to:

  • examine the artistic characteristics of Childhood Idyll;
  • locate France on a map of the world and identify some defining features of the country;
  • describe the characteristics of a city and of the countryside; and
  • classify pictures as being from a city or a countryside


  • Cut-out magazine pictures or images of cities and countryside areas downloaded from the Internet
  • Map of the world, visible to all students in the classroom
  • Copy of Aesop's fable, "The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse" (many compilations of Aesop’s fables are readily available at libraries)
  • About the Art sheet on Childhood Idyll (found at the end of the lesson plan)
  • One color copy of the painting for every four students, or the ability to project the image onto a wall or screen


  1. Read aloud Aesop's fable, "The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse" with the class. Prompt students to think about the similarities and differences between the two mice and where they are from. When you have finished, make a chart of characteristics of the city and the country. What do they look like? What kinds of activities can people do in each of those settings?
  2. Display Childhood Idyll and share with the children that the painting was created by William-Adolphe Bouguereau of France in 1900. What is in the painting? What colors do they see? What are the girls doing? Who do the children think the girls in the painting might be? Where do they think the girls are? Why do they think this?
  3. Ask students: What do they notice about the background in the painting? What does it look like? Think back to discussion from the book—is the background in the city or the country? What makes them think that? If the painting were of city girls, what would be different? Are there any other characteristics that we can add to our chart?
  4. Show the children several different pictures of cities and countryside settings cut out from magazines or downloaded and printed from the Internet. As you hold up and show each picture to the class, have the children tell whether the picture is from a city or from the countryside.
  5. If time allows, provide partner groups a pile of pictures of the country and cities. Challenge students to sort the different pictures into two groups—city or country.
  6. Post all the city and country pictures on your characteristic chart. To close the lesson, talk through the characteristic lists and develop definitions for both city and country, based on your observations and descriptions.

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About the Art

Childhood Idyll by William-Adolphe Bouguereau, France, 1900

Who Made It?

Born in La Rochelle, France, William-Adolphe Bouguereau [BOO-guhr-oh] is often thought of as the typical French academic painter. After many years of studying, painting, and teaching in France and Italy, Bouguereau rose to prominence as the most famous French painter of his day. His combination of realism and idealism attracted many admirers. He cast many of his compositions in “ideal” ways, with figures based in part on classical statues as models. As one of the key supporters of the Salon (the official exhibition of contemporary art in Paris), Bouguereau showed his work there regularly for several decades. Although he lived during a time when artists were exploring new ways of painting, he never strayed from the conservative, academic style of painting he learned during his formative years. The response to his works was mixed: some found his work impressive for his technical skill, while others thought that the subjects were sappy and old-fashioned. Regardless, he is thought of as the European artist who set the academic standard for painting in the 1800s.

What Inspired It?

An idyll is a poem, prose piece, or event depicting a rural and tranquil scene, usually in idealized terms. The girls in this painting are images of idyllic innocence. Bouguereau probably created this painting during one of his frequent trips to La Rochelle, modeling it after local peasant children. Childhood Idyll reflects the classicism of academic painting in the late 1800s, which referred back to the art of ancient Greece and Rome. Bouguereau made his paintings look timeless: instead of portraying the girls in the latest fashions, he paints them wearing peasant-type clothing that could belong to several different centuries. Bouguereau’s painting process was long and painstaking; this painting is the result of months of dedicated research, sketching, and careful planning.

For more resources related to this artwork, check out the "Find Out More" section for this object on Creativity Resource online.

Things to Look For

Childhood Idyll by William-Adolphe Bouguereau, France, 1900



The artist’s brushwork is virtually invisible. The figures are painted with thin layers of paint and almost no texture, leaving a smooth, glossy finish. There are only a few spots where you can see big fanned brushstrokes in the clouds, and short, wispy brushstrokes in the shrubs.

atmospheric haze

Atmospheric Haze

The perception of depth in nature can be enhanced with the use of atmospheric haze. This effect is achieved by using less focus and dull, blue hues for distant objects. The haze in this painting represents cloudiness, but can also indicate humidity, rain, snow, or smoke.



Foreshortening is a technique artists use to create an illusion of depth, either by pushing an object forward or sending it back into space. Look at how much larger the older girl’s feet are compared to her head, for example. The difference in scale between the two anatomical parts suggests that the feet are closer to the viewer than her head.


Composition is the arrangement of elements in a painting. The three main elements in this painting are the girls, the background, and the foreground grasses and shrubs. Bouguereau places his subjects in a space that’s rather like a stage. The two girls are seated center stage, facing the audience at a comfortable distance. The flat landscape and empty sky create a sense of expansiveness, dividing the background into two distinct spaces—the top and the bottom. Although one has the impression that this artwork was painted out of doors, it was actually a very planned and deliberate composition that the artist worked out in his studio.

color 1


Bouguereau gives his painting a rosy glow by using pinks and flesh tones to warm the otherwise cool whites and blues. Even the ground seems reddish. Bouguereau adds white and gray to his colors to give the work its soft, pastel effect.



Except for the dark outlines of the girls’ heads against the light sky, there are no strong lines in the painting. Boundaries are merely implied by subtle color shifts. Soft edges and interwoven colors allow our eyes to flow freely across the painting.


The sunlight in this painting is diffused through the overcast sky, softening and muting the colors.

Childhood Idyll
William-Adolphe Bouguereau, France

Gift of the Lawrence C. Phipps Foundation, 1958.115
Photograph © Denver Art Museum 2009. All Rights Reserved.

This image is intended for classroom use only and may not be reproduced for other reasons without the permission of the Denver Art Museum.
This piece may not currently be on display at the museum.